It is the dominant standard of the next generation of Internet phones, audio conferencing terminals, and video conferencing technologies. All H.
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Three other components are required: Q. Optional components in an H. Gateway is an optional element in an H. Gateways provide many services, the most common being a translation function between H. This function includes translation between transmission formats i. In addition, gateway also translates between audio and video codecs and performs call setup and clearing on both the LAN side and the switched-circuit network side.
In general, the purpose of gateway is to reflect the characteristics of a LAN endpoint to an SCN endpoint and vice versa. The primary applications of gateways are likely to be:. Gateways are not required if connections to other networks are not needed, since endpoints may directly communicate with other endpoints on the same LAN. Terminals communicate with gateways using the H.
With the appropriate transcoders, H. Many gateway functions are left to the designer. For example, the actual number of H. By incorporating gateway technology into the H. Gatekeeper is the most important component of an H. It acts as the central point for all calls within its zone and provides call control services to registered endpoints. In many ways, an H.
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Gatekeepers perform two important call control functions. The second function is bandwidth management, which is also designated within RAS. For instance, if a network manager has specified a threshold for the number of simultaneous conferences on the LAN, the Gatekeeper can refuse to make any more connections once the threshold is reached. The effect is to limit the total conferencing bandwidth to some fraction of the total available; the remaining capacity is left for e-mail, file transfers, and other LAN protocols.
This collection of elements is known as an H. An optional, but valuable feature of a gatekeeper is its ability to route H. By routing a call through a gatekeeper, it can be controlled more effectively. Service providers need this ability in order to bill for calls placed through their network. This service can also be used to re-route a call to another endpoint if a called endpoint is unavailable. In addition, a gatekeeper capable of routing H. For instance, if a call is routed through a gatekeeper , that gatekeeper can then re-route the call to one of many gateways based on some proprietary routing logic.
While a gatekeeper is logically separate from H. Gatekeeper is not required in an H. However, if a gatekeeper is present, terminals must make use of the services offered by gatekeepers RAS defines these as address translation, admissions control, bandwidth control, and zone management. Gatekeepers can also play a role in multipoint connections. To support multipoint conferences, users would employ a Gatekeeper to receive H.
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When the conference switches to multipoint, the gatekeeper can redirect the H. Gatekeeper need not process the H.
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LANs which contain Gateways could also contain a gatekeeper to translate incoming E. Because a Zone is defined by its gatekeeper , H. Under H. The MC handles H. The MC also controls conference resources by determining which, if any, of the audio and video streams will be multicast. The MC does not deal directly with any of the media streams. MC and MP capabilities can exist in a dedicated component or be part of other H. A soft switch includes some functions of an MP. An access server, also sometimes referred to as a media gateway controller, includes some of the functions of the MC.
Approved in January of , version 2 of the H. The most significant advances were in security, fast call setup, supplementary services and T. A web interface can be provided for a business customer to manage its accounts. The business customer can use the web interface to make additions, deletions, changes, and modifications to PAC translations without involvement of a carrier's customer service department. An example of call processing using PACs follows.
Basic toll-free service supports e. SCP b can then attempt to route the call using a route plan or trigger plan that has been defined for that Toll Free dialed number. SCP b can have several possible responses to a soft switch routing request, see Table 10 above. Using the subscriber routing option described in the previous paragraph SCP b can return a number translation for the Toll Free number.
Alternatively, SCP b can return a circuit identifier. SCP b usually returns a circuit identifier when the termination is a dedicated trunk to a customer premise equipment CPE. Then if SCP b determines that it can not route the call or has determined to block the call per the route plan , SCP b returns a 'route to resource' response to Soft-Switch with an announcement identifier.
In this case Soft-Switch can connect the calling party with Announcement Server for the playing of an announcement and then disconnect the caller. The configuration server will now be described in greater detail with reference to FIG. Configuration server supports transaction requests to a database containing information needed by network components. Configuration server supports queries by voice network components during initialization and call processing. The data contained within configuration server databases can be divided into two types. The first type of data is that used to initialize connections between components.
The second set of data can be categorized as that data needed by soft switch for use during call processing. This type of data includes customer and DAL profiles. This information can include information describing class of service restrictions and account code settings. The database of configuration server contains voice network topology information as well as basic data tables necessary for soft switch call processing logic.
Configuration server is queried by soft switches at start-up and upon changes to this information in order to set up the initial connections between elements of telecommunications network Configuration server is also queried by soft switches in order to configure initial settings within soft switch Configuration information for AGs and TGs includes: number and configuration of bays, modules, lines and channels; relationship of modules, line and channels to OPC, DPC and CIC values; and relationship of module, line and channels to trunk groups.
Tables necessary to support class of service restrictions include: LATA tables; state tables; and blocked country code tables.
feutertozorworl.gq Configuration server also contains information related to customer trigger plans and service options. Customer trigger plans provide call processing logic used in connecting a call. Configuration server information is queried during call processing to identify the service logic to be executed for each call.
The information that soft switch uses to look-up customer profile data is the ANI, trunk ID or destination number for the call. The information that will be returned defines the call processing logic that is associated with ANI, trunk ID or destination number or trunk group.
Table 12 includes an example of a customer profile query. Trunk ID. Table 13 includes an example of a customer profile query response provided by configuration server Configuration server interfaces to components. Configuration server receives provisioning and reference data updates from data distributor of provisioning component Configuration server also provides data to soft switch for call processing. Configuration server is used by soft switch to retrieve information necessary for initialization and call processing.
Information that soft switch retrieves from configuration server during a query is primarily oriented towards customer service provisioning and gateway site , port configuration. Configuration server uses a separate physical interface for all SNMP messages and additional functions that may be defined. Examples of additional functions that may be defined include provisioning, updating, and the passage of special alarms and performance parameters to configuration server from the NOC.
In an alternative embodiment, the functionality of configuration server can be combined with that of route server in a single network component. In an additional embodiment of the invention the functions of either or both of CS and RS can be performed by application logic residing on soft switch Route servers a and b are connected via redundant connections to soft switches a, b and c. Soft switches a, b and c are in turn connected to gateway sites via data network not shown. For example, soft switch a is in communication with TG a and TG b.
Similarly soft switch b is in communication with AG a and TG a. Soft switch c is in turn in communication with AG b and AG a.