After crossing all his men, Canby decided that a frontal assault would fail and deployed his force to assault and turn the Confederate left flank.
Before he could do so, though, the Rebels attacked. Federals rebuffed a cavalry charge, but the main Confederate force made a frontal attack, capturing six artillery pieces and forcing the Union battle line to break and many of the men to flee. Canby ordered a retreat. Confederate reinforcements arrived and Sibley was about to order another attack when Canby asked for a truce, by a white flag, to remove the bodies of the dead and wounded. Left in possession of the battlefield, the Confederates claimed victory but had suffered heavy casualties.
Although the Confederates would soon occupy Santa Fe, they would have to leave New Mexico within four months. Result s : Confederate victory. Location: Socorro County. Campaign: Sibley's New Mexico Campaign Date s : February , Principal Commanders: Col. Edward R. Canby [US]; Brig. Henry H. Sibley and Col. Thomas Green [CS]. Black Slave Owners. The failure of the US government to afford to the southern Indians the protection solemnly guaranteed by treaty stipulations was the great cause of their entering into an alliance with The Confederacy Kindle Available Civil War on the Western Border, Fanatical politics of the western frontier, immigrant abolitionists with loaded Spencer rifles funded by mysterious personages back East, cut-throats, gin heads and horse thieves, colorful character descriptions General Stand Watie's Confederate Indians The Confederacy pioneered the idea of giving blacks and women positions of authority [the Matron Law], placed Jews in positions of power, put General's stars on a Mexican and the first American Indian General.
This book will leave you wanting to learn more about this rather neglected region of the war. No less important in many regards for the defining of the nation's future than the more well-known battlefields of Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania. Highly recommended Kindle Available Civil War on the Western Border, Fanatical politics of the western frontier, immigrant abolitionists with loaded Spencer rifles funded by mysterious personages back East, cut-throats, gin heads and horse thieves, colorful character descriptions The Civil War in Arizona: The Story of the California Volunteers, History of the California Column in wartime Arizona and a rare compilation of letters written by the volunteer soldiers who served in the U.
New Mexico Civil War Battle Valverde American Civil War
The second view taken by historians redeems the reputation of the Hispanic Volunteers and militia. In order to salvage the status of Hispanics, this tradition must not only demonstrate Hispanic bravery, but must give alternate interpretations of the remarks of Union officers. This paper supports the second line of reasoning and adds to this argument the element of motivation for continued support of the Union in the light of their initial hesitation and the attitude of Union officers toward Hispanic New Mexicans.
The Civil War drama that unfolded in New Mexico was not isolated to the Anglos living there, many of whom were transplanted Texans. It also affected the Hispanic New Mexicans. Colton represents those historians who lean towards trusting the veracity of the documents recorded by the Union officers. Did the Hispanic population fight valiantly to preserve the Union, or is the historian, Ray C. Colton, correct in describing the Hispanics as cowardly? He points to Major James L.
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Her article, Hispanos and the Civil War in New Mexico a Reconsideration, added to the historiography by offering an alternative interpretation of the performance of Hispanics at Valverde. The Anglo officers among the Regulars harbored ill will toward Hispanic Volunteers and did not trust them from the beginning of the war.
Miller maintains that the attitudes of the Anglo officers toward native New Mexicans and the poor training provided them explain the ostensibly poor performance of the New Mexicans at the Battle of Valverde. It is necessary at this point to provide a brief background of the tension leading to the invasion of New Mexico.
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Several Union officers, whom the army charged with fighting hostile Indians in New Mexico, resigned to join the cause of the confederacy. Ewell, and Major James Longstreet. Several other officers resigned to accept a commission in the Confederate army in Texas.
Thompson, Jerry. Hall, Mark Hardwick. Floyd worked to subvert the Union hold in New Mexico before the outbreak of the war. Floyd intentionally assigned a secessionist, Colonel William W. Loring, to command the Department of New Mexico early in Loring and Lieutenant Colonel B.
Crittenden, who was also a secessionist and a high- ranking officer in New Mexico, set out systematically to corrupt their subordinates. This provides a framework by which to compare Colton and Miller in an attempt to discover the motivation for the Hispanics at Valverde and Glorieta Pass. John R. He decreed Mesilla, about forty miles north of the state line, to be the new capital and he declared himself the new military governor. Though fighting hostile Indians in Arizona proved to be a problem, controlling the southern portion of New Mexico was easy since both trade and demographics tied that area of New Mexico to the South.
Mostly Texans and Anglo emigrants from other Southern states occupied the southern part of the territory.
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Case and Company, Vol. II, , Alberts, 6. It was not as sympathetic to the South or the cause of the Rebellion. Cooper urgently requesting reinforcements. Sibley confided in him that his plans went far beyond his written orders. He assumed the great number of officers who defected to the South had dispirited and weakened the Union soldiers. Though the secessionists in New Mexico were a vocal lot, they were relatively few in number. It is impossible to say what made him think that the land could support an army of 3, soldiers plus mules, wagons, and horses.
He was aware that 16 Edrington and Taylor, He counted on the Confederacy sending supplies once he controlled New Mexico. His request for supplies to the conquered territory never came. Sibley also assumed that he was the man who could accomplish this miracle. Unfortunately, he developed two character flaws that were destined to rob him of his glory. First, he drank in excess. He managed to miss every single battle in the New Mexico campaign. This lack of leadership had a detrimental effect on the Texas soldiers. Hispanics cared little for the cause of secession as represented in a column in the Santa Fe Gazette: What is the position of New Mexico?
The answer is a short one. She desires to be left alone. No interference from one side or the other of the sections that 19 Alberts, 9. She neither wants abolitionists nor secessionists from abroad to mix in her affairs at present; nor will she tolerate either.
And in New Mexico, Texans comprised the invading Confederate army. As a Federal officer in New Mexico before the war, Sibley may have perceived the attitude of Hispanics as hostile toward Federal occupation.
The reality, however, was that New Mexicans loathed Texans. They were not hostile toward all Anglos. Sibley needed to take Fort Craig in order to be able to go on to capture the Union supply depot in Albuquerque, which would enable them to advance onward to the strategically vital Fort Union. Canby Commander of the Department of New Mexico. Canby was a veteran of the Mexican-American war and had served on the frontier for thirteen years. Sibley and Canby knew each other and served together during the campaign against Brigham Young and the Mormons in There had even been a rumor that the two were brother-in-laws.
creatoranswers.com/modules/pending/2438.php These rumors turned out to be false. Alvin M. Josephy, Jr.
Canby and other Federal officers 27 Alvin M. General Sibley decided to bypass Fort Craig and force a battle on a ground of his own choosing. Pino and Robert H. Stapleton who had previously crossed the river directly east of the fort in order to scout the movements of the Confederates. Sibley intended to return across the Rio Grande at Valverde, about six miles north of the fort, and cut off their supply route.
The battle commenced at A. Canby arrived at about P. Roberts regiments had also arrived so he ordered them to cross the river in a pivot movement and join the Union army on the east side.