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Another team at the University of Cambridge focused on ovarian cancer and showed that the level of a faulty cancer gene — p53 — detectable in DNA from blood samples following treatment could be a good early indication of how well the cancer is responding. Both of these studies are still early in development — bigger clinical trials will need to be carried out to find out if they improve the outlook for patients.

This discovery helps scientists understand why this type of tumour respond better to treatment and could help them develop more effective treatments for other harder to treat types of medulloblastoma. And our scientists in Edinburgh made it possible to see the unexpected relationship that specialised immune cells in the brain called microglia have with brain tumour cells. Their findings could open up a new way to test drugs for glioblastoma, the most common type of brain tumour.

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This would mean fewer trips to the hospital for men, potentially fewer side effects, as well as savings for the NHS. This evidence should change the way men are given radiotherapy for prostate cancer in the UK. The discovery could help explain why some organs are more susceptible to developing tumours than others and explains why cancer is more than just bad luck. Using an infra-red light and a dye that sticks to healthy oesophageal cells but not to precancerous cells, they showed that this technology can spot abnormal cells that are on their way to becoming cancerous.

If removed at this stage, some cases of oesophageal cancer could be prevented. In November a study, led by scientists at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, revealed some of the details of how tobacco causes such devastation to our cells and increases the risk of cancer in different organs. Opening a window of opportunity for head and neck cancer. Scientists find new genetic fault behind ovarian cancer. Science Snaps: switching T cells on — size matters. From One-eyed lambs to target skin cancer drugs. Building tumours in the lab — a how to guide.

Cancer Drug Discovery Science and History - Ghent University Library

Science Snaps: leukaemia cells are born to run. The findings could be used to improve treatments, and in turn survival for the disease, something which is urgently needed. The trial will run in the UK and in India, open in more than centres across the UK and recruit 11, patients. In the future, the findings could allow doctors to better tailor oesophageal cancer treatment by identifying patients who are more or less likely to respond to drugs like cisplatin. You can read about the seven challenges and what answering them could mean for patients in our Grand Challenge blog series.

They found that turning on the progesterone receptor re-programmes the effects of oestrogen on breast cancer cells, slowing down their growth. These are just the highlights from - read more on our blog. New figures released this year show that death rates for breast, bowel, lung and prostate cancer combined have fallen by almost a third in the last 20 years , thanks to research.

Thousands of people help our research by playing the revolutionary smartphone game, Genes in Space, analysing DNA from real cancer samples. Within a month, this huge team of Citizen Scientists processed more than 40 miles of DNA data , which would have taken our scientists more than half a year. Several studies from our researchers shed light on how melanoma skin cancer spreads through the body , pointing towards new avenues for future therapies. Our scientists discover an unexpected connection between a rare medical condition — Stone Man syndrome , where muscle turns to bone — and a deadly type of childhood brain tumour known as DIPG.

An independent review supports our standardised tobacco packaging campaign. Our researchers shed light on the genetic changes underpinning the rare type of cancer that killed Bob Marley. The National Lung Matrix trial launches, testing personalised therapies for lung cancer. We unveil our new five-year strategy to beat cancer sooner.

Drug Discovery & Making New Medicines

We team up with the Royal Marsden hospital to train GPs to spot cancer earlier. Lung cancer campaign could save lives.

Cancer Drug Design and Discovery

DNA untwister is a new tumour suppressor. A major trial funded by Cancer Research UK shows that adding chemo to radiotherapy can halve the risk of bladder cancer coming back after treatment, changing the way that people with the disease are treated. We make a crucial connection between cancer and inflammation , taking an important step forward in understanding how the two are linked. Stratified Medicine Programme launches, testing tailored treatments for cancer.

Our campaigners help push through sunbed law. New ovarian cancer gene found. Potential childhood leukaemia treatment discovered. Our trial shows that a new drug combination can increase survival from gall bladder and bile duct cancers, highlighting the importance of research into these less common diseases.

Olivier Micheau

Liver surgery boosts bowel cancer survival. Fewer, larger doses of radiotherapy better for breast cancer. We show that a more targeted radiotherapy technique, called IMRT , can treat head and neck cancer with fewer side effects.

Using cutting-edge imaging techniques, our researchers spy on moving cancer cells and identify possible targets for new treatments. Our scientists make an important step forward in understanding the link between the female sex hormone oestrogen and cancer. Old drug could have new tricks for hereditary bowel cancer. New route to leukaemia discovered. Our scientists track down genes linked to three types of childhood brain tumour — meningioma , ependymoma and pilocytic astrocytoma. Our researchers figure out why some breast cancers become resistant to the drug tamoxifen, paving the way for more effective long-term treatments in the future. This underpins the development of new cancer drugs that are now being tested in clinical trials.

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Viruses in disguise could fight ovarian cancer. Faster chemo increases survival from neuroblastoma. Thousands of our supporters get involved in the successful campaign to bring in smoke-free legislation, which comes into effect in the UK in — a move that will prevent thousands of premature deaths over the next decade. Our researchers help to run one of the largest ever clinical trials testing the benefits of chemotherapy for bowel cancer. The trial showed for the first time that chemotherapy could help to improve survival for people whose cancer was less advanced, and changed the way that patients are treated.

Working together with the Brain Tumour Charity, our clinical trial shows that using chemotherapy to delay or avoid radiotherapy in children under three with ependymoma reduces the risk of health problems later in life. We show that white blood cell donations could be used to treat transplant patients who develop particular cancers related to virus infection. Our new Cambridge Research Institute is opened by the Queen. I maging technique could tell if treatment works within days. Unstable chromosomes are key to drug resistance. We develop a way to identify groups of people with a higher risk of bowel cancer due to genetic variations.

This could lead to new measures, such as more targeted screening, to prevent the disease for thousands of people in the future.

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We show that a revolutionary way to read mammograms with the help of a computer could free up time for hundreds of medical experts and speed the breast screening process. Our researchers unravel the three-dimensional structure of a protein called Hsp90 , which is important in many types of cancer. They induce apoptosis [53] [54] and protein cascade via proteinase inhibitor, [53] have defense functions, [55] and regulate plant responses to different biotic and abiotic stresses.

Jasmonate derivatives JAD are also important in wound response and tissue regeneration in plant cells. They have also been identified to have anti-aging effects on human epidermal layer. Salicylic acid SA , a phytohormone , was initially derived from willow bark and has since been identified in many species.