You will not arrange for landing marines or seizing customs house without specific direction from the [State] department. The Republican National Convention was in session, and the Speaker of the House, Joseph Cannon , its chair, read the first sentence of the cable—and only the first sentence—to the convention, electrifying what had been a humdrum coronation of Roosevelt. This was the fighting Teddy that America loved, and his frenzied supporters—and American chauvinists everywhere—roared in delight. What was seen as tough talk boosted Roosevelt's election chances. Hay never fully recovered from the death of his son Adelbert, writing in to his close friend Lizzie Cameron that "the death of our boy made my wife and me old, at once and for the rest of our lives".
Although Hay gave speeches in support of Roosevelt, he spent much of the fall of at his New Hampshire house or with his younger brother Charles, who was ill in Boston. After the election, Roosevelt asked Hay to remain another four years. Hay asked for time to consider, but the President did not allow it, announcing to the press two days later that Hay would stay at his post. Early saw futility for Hay, as a number of treaties he had negotiated were defeated or amended by the Senate—one involving the British dominion of Newfoundland due to Senator Lodge's fears it would harm his fisherman constituents.
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Others, promoting arbitration, were voted down or amended because the Senate did not want to be bypassed in the settlement of international disputes. By Roosevelt's inauguration on March 4, , Hay's health was so bad that both his wife and his friend Henry Adams insisted on his going to Europe, where he could rest and get medical treatment. Presidential doctor Presley Rixey issued a statement that Hay was suffering from overwork, but in letters the secretary hinted his conviction that he did not have long to live. Kaiser Wilhelm II was among the monarchs who wrote to Hay asking him to visit, though he declined; Belgian King Leopold II succeeded in seeing him by showing up at his hotel, unannounced.
There was not time to see all who wished to see Hay on what he knew was his final visit. On his return to the United States, despite his family's desire to take him to New Hampshire, the secretary went to Washington to deal with departmental business and "say Ave Caesar! He died there on July 1 of his heart ailment and complications. Hay was interred in Lake View Cemetery in Cleveland, near the grave of Garfield, in the presence of Roosevelt and many dignitaries, including Robert Lincoln.
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Hay wrote some poetry while at Brown University, and more during the Civil War. In poetry, he sought the revolutionary outcome for other nations that he believed had come to a successful conclusion in the United States. It went through eight editions in Hay's lifetime. The Spanish are depicted as afflicted by the "triple curse of crown, crozier, and sabre"—most kings and ecclesiastics are presented as useless—and Hay pins his hope in the republican movement in Spain.
John Hay, "Jim Bludso" . Pike County Ballads , a grouping of six poems published with other Hay poetry as a book in ,  brought him great success. Written in the dialect of Pike County, Illinois, where Hay went to school as a child, they are approximately contemporaneous with pioneering poems in similar dialect by Bret Harte and there has been debate as to which came first.
The Bread-Winners , one of the first novels to take an anti-labor perspective, was published anonymously in published editions did not bear Hay's name until and he may have tried to disguise his writing style. In writing it, Hay was influenced by the labor unrest of the s, that affected him personally, as corporations belonging to Stone, his father-in-law, were among those struck,  at a time when Hay had been left in charge in Stone's absence. According to historian Scott Dalrymple, "in response, Hay proceeded to write an indictment of organized labor so scathing, so vehement, that he dared not attach his name to it.
Peace is restored by a group of veterans led by Farnham, and, at the end, he appears likely to marry Alice Belding, a woman of his own class. Although unusual among the many books inspired by the labor unrest of the late s in taking the perspective of the wealthy, it was the most successful of them, and was a sensation, gaining many favorable reviews.
Early in his presidency, Hay and Nicolay requested and received permission from Lincoln to write his biography. Hay and Nicolay enjoyed exclusive access to Lincoln's papers, which were not opened to other researchers until They gathered documents written by others, as well as many of the Civil War books already being published. They at rare times relied on memory, such as Nicolay's recollection of the moment at the Republican convention when Lincoln was nominated, but for much of the rest relied on research. Hay began his part of the writing in ;  the work was interrupted by illnesses of Hay, Nicolay, or family members,  or by Hay's writing of The Bread-Winners.
The published work, Abraham Lincoln: A History , alternates parts in which Lincoln is at center with discussions of contextual matters, such as legislative events or battles. According to historian Joshua Zeitz, "it is easy to forget how widely underrated Lincoln the president and Lincoln the man were at the time of his death and how successful Hay and Nicolay were in elevating his place in the nation's collective historical memory.
In , Hay wrote that when he died, "I shall not be much missed except by my wife. He memorialized his friend in the final pages of his autobiographical The Education of Henry Adams : with Hay's death, his own education had ended. Gale pointed out that Hay "accomplished a great deal in the realm of international statesmanship, and the world may be a better place because of his efforts as secretary of state His first poetry was his best.
Taliaferro suggests that "if Hay put any He, not Roosevelt, was the adult in charge when the nation and the State Department attained global maturity. Loe Strachey , "All that the world saw was a great gentleman and a great statesman doing his work for the State and for the President with perfect taste, perfect good sense, and perfect good humour". Hay's efforts to shape Lincoln's image increased his own prominence and reputation in making his association and that of Nicolay with the assassinated president ever more remarkable and noteworthy.
According to Zeitz, "the greater Lincoln grew in death, the greater they grew for having known him so well, and so intimately, in life. Everyone wanted to know them if only to ask what it had been like—what he had been like. Basler stated that later biographers such as Carl Sandburg did not "ma[k]e revisions of the essential story told by N. Hay brought about more than 50 treaties, including the Canal-related treaties,  and settlement of the Samoan dispute , as a result of which the United States secured what became known as American Samoa.
That treaty failed in the Danish parliament on a tied vote. One of the most entertaining and interesting letter writers who ever ran the State Department, the witty, dapper, and bearded Hay left behind an abundance of documentary evidence on his public career.
His name is indelibly linked with that verity of the nation's Asian policy, the Open Door, and he contributed much to the resolution of the longstanding problems with the British. Patient, discreet, and judicious, Hay deserves to stand in the front rank of secretaries of state.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other people named John Hay, see John Hay disambiguation.
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Clara Stone m. Main article: American Civil War. Main article: Assassination of Abraham Lincoln. For further information on the debate about the gold standard in the campaign, see Cross of Gold speech. Main article: Open Door Policy. Main article: Boxer Rebellion. Main article: Assassination of William McKinley.
Main article: The Bread-Winners. Main article: Abraham Lincoln: A History.
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See Zeitz a , p. See Gale , p. See Woolman.
Nicolay and John Hay. Houghton Mifflin Company. Retrieved April 25, National Park Service. Retrieved July 17, New York: Octagon Books, Reprint by special arrangement with Yale University Press. United States Department of State. Retrieved July 29, Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved May 16, Brown University.
Retrieved October 8, The Plain Dealer. Retrieved July 19, July 25, Retrieved December 7, Halsema: Colonial Engineer A Biography. Under the Shadow of the Rising Sun.
Nampa, ID: Pacific Press, pp. United States Secretaries of State.menfunctinachvi.cf