These moments, however, are only referential, and presentations studying the reinvention, representation and conceptualisation of monarchy during other modern periods, from to the present, are also welcome, with Renaissance subjects possibly serving as introits and contemporary ones as epilogues to the conference. We invite proposals for minute presentations, which will be revised subsequently for publication in a peer-reviewed collective volume. Graduate students are welcome to participate, and papers in Dutch, English, French, German, Italian, and Spanish are accepted, although English is encouraged to facilitate communication.
The conference will be held at the University of Cambridge on January Please email a word abstract and one-page CV to Carolina Armenteros c. These explorations have a number of causes. Monetarists believe the main reason the Age of Exploration began was because of a severe shortage of bullion in Europe.
The European economy was dependent on gold and silver currency, but low domestic supplies had plunged much of Europe into a recession. Another factor was the centuries-long conflict between the Iberians and the Muslims to the south. The Golden Age of Piracy is a designation given to one or more outbursts of piracy in the early modern period, spanning from the midth century to the midth century.
The buccaneering period covers approximately the late 17th century. The period is characterized by Anglo-French seamen based on Jamaica and Tortuga attacking Spanish colonies and shipping in the Caribbean and eastern Pacific. A sailing route known as the Pirate Round was followed by certain Anglo-American pirates at the turn of the 18th century, associated with long-distance voyages from Bermuda and the Americas to rob Muslim and East India Company targets in the Indian Ocean and Red Sea.
The post-Spanish Succession period extending into the early 18th century, when Anglo-American sailors and privateers left unemployed by the end of the War of the Spanish Succession turned en masse to piracy in the Caribbean, the American eastern seaboard, the West African coast, and the Indian Ocean.
CFP 'Monarchy and Modernity, 1500-1945', University of Cambridge, 8-9 January 12222
The 15th to 18th century period is marked by the first European colonies, the rise of strong centralized governments, and the beginnings of recognizable European nation states that are the direct antecedents of today's states. Although the Renaissance included revolutions in many intellectual pursuits, as well as social and political upheaval, it is perhaps best known for European artistic developments and the contributions of such polymaths as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo , who inspired the term " Renaissance man ".
The Peace of Westphalia resulted from the first modern diplomatic congress. Until , the regulations became part of the constitutional laws of the Holy Roman Empire. The Treaty of the Pyrenees , signed in , ended the war between France and Spain and is often considered part of the overall accord. The Age of Absolutism describes the monarchical power that was unrestrained by any other institutions, such as churches, legislatures , or social elites of the European monarchs during the transition from feudalism to capitalism.
Monarchs described as absolute can especially be found in the 17th century through the 19th century. Nations that adopted Absolutism include France, Prussia, and Russia. Nobles tended to trade privileges for allegiance throughout the eighteenth century, so that the interests of the nobility aligned with that of the crown. Absolutism is characterized by the ending of feudal partitioning, consolidation of power with the monarch, rise of state power , unification of the state laws , drastic increase in tax revenue collected by the monarch, and a decrease in the influence of nobility.
Louis believed in the Divine Right of Kings , the theory that the King was crowned by God and accountable to him alone. Consequently, he has long been considered the archetypal absolute monarch. Louis XIV continued the work of his predecessor to create a centralized state , governed from the capital to sweep away the remnants of feudalism that persisted in parts of France.
He succeeded in breaking the power of the provincial nobility, much of which had risen in revolt during his minority called the Fronde , and forced many leading nobles to live with him in his lavish Palace of Versailles.
Late Middle Ages
Men who featured prominently in the political and military life of France during this period include Mazarin , Jean-Baptiste Colbert , Turenne , Vauban. Before the Age of Revolution, the English Civil War was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists. The first and second civil wars pitted the supporters of King Charles I against the supporters of the Long Parliament, while the third war saw fighting between supporters of King Charles II and supporters of the Rump Parliament. The monopoly of the Church of England on Christian worship in England ended with the victors consolidating the established Protestant Ascendancy in Ireland.
Constitutionally, the wars established the precedent that an English monarch cannot govern without Parliament's consent. The Glorious Revolution of establishes modern parliamentary democracy in England. The War of the Spanish Succession was a war fought between and , in which several European powers combined to stop a possible unification of the Kingdoms of Spain and France under a single Bourbon monarch, upsetting the European balance of power.
- Monarchy from the Middle Ages to Modernity by Starkey David - AbeBooks.
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The war was marked by the military leadership of notable generals like the duc de Villars , the Jacobite Duke of Berwick , the Duke of Marlborough and Prince Eugene of Savoy. The Peace of Utrecht established after a series of individual peace treaties signed in the Dutch city of Utrecht concluded between various European states helped end the War of the Spanish Succession. The treaty enregistred the defeat of French ambitions expressed in the wars of Louis XIV and preserved the European system based on the balance of power.
The Songhai Empire took control of the trans-Saharan trade at the beginning of the modern era. It seized Timbuktu in and Jenne in , building the regime on trade revenues and the cooperation of Muslim merchants.
The empire eventually made Islam the official religion, built mosques, and brought Muslim scholars to Gao. Around the beginning of the modern era, the Benin Kingdom was an independent trading power in the southeastern coastline of West Africa, blocking the access of other inland nations to the coastal ports. Benin may have housed , inhabitants at its height, spreading over twenty-five square kilometres, enclosed by three concentric rings of earthworks.
By the late 15th century Benin was in contact with Portugal. At its apogee in the 16th and 17th centuries, Benin encompassed parts of southeastern Yorubaland and the western Igbo. The term colonialism is normally used with reference to discontiguous overseas empires rather than contiguous land-based empires, European or otherwise. European colonisation during the 15th to 19th centuries resulted in the spread of Christianity to Sub-Saharan Africa , the Americas, Australia and the Philippines.
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Christopher Columbus came to the Americas in Subsequently, the major sea powers in Europe sent expeditions to the New World to build trade networks and colonies and to convert the native peoples to Christianity. Pope Alexander VI divided newly discovered lands outside Europe between Spain and Portugal along a north-south meridian leagues west of the Cape Verde islands off the west coast of Africa.
The division was never accepted by the rulers of England or France. See also the Treaty of Tordesillas , which followed the papal decree. What is now called Latin America , a designation first used in the late 19th century,  was claimed by Spain and Portugal. The Western Hemisphere, the New World ,  was divided between the two Iberian powers by the Treaty of Tordesillas in what until the late 16th-century, was an area that could be called "Ibero-America.
Spain concentrated building its empire where there were large indigenous populations, "Indians," who could be compelled to work and large deposits of precious metals, mainly silver. Both New Spain colonial Mexico and Peru fit those criteria and the Spanish crown established viceroyalties to rule those two large areas.
Monarchy from the Middle Ages to Modernity by Starkey David - AbeBooks
As Spanish settlements and the economy grew in size and complexity, the Spanish established viceroyalties in the eighteenth century during administrative reforms Rio de la Plata southeastern South America and New Granada northern South America. Initially, Portuguese settlements Brazil in the coastal northeast were of lesser importance in the larger Portuguese overseas empire, where lucrative commerce and small settlements devoted to trade were established in coastal Africa, India and China.
With sparse indigenous populations that could not be coerced to work and no known deposits of precious metals, Portugal sought a high-value, low-bulk export product and found it in sugarcane. Black African slave labour from Portugal's West African possessions was imported to do the grueling agricultural work.
- Monarchy: From the Middle Ages to Modernity.
- Monarchy: From the Middle Ages to Modernity;
- CFP Reminder: 'Monarchy and Modernity, 1500-1945', University of Cambridge, 8-9 January 12222.
- Monarchy : from the Middle Ages to modernity?
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- Monarchy from the Middle Ages to Modernity by Starkey David;
As the wealth of the Ibero-America increased, some Western European powers Dutch, French, British, Danish sought to duplicate the model in areas that the Iberians had not settled in numbers. They seized some Caribbean islands from the Spanish and transferred the model of sugar production on plantations with slave labour and settled in northern areas of North America in what are now the Eastern Seaboard of the United States and Canada.
North America outside the zone of Spanish settlement was a contested area in the 17th century. Spain had founded small settlements in Florida and Georgia but nowhere near the size of those in New Spain or the Caribbean islands. France, The Netherlands, and Great Britain held several colonies in North America and the West Indies from the 17th century, years after the Spanish and Portuguese established permanent colonies.
France colonized what is now Eastern Canada , founding Quebec City in The Thirteen Colonies , in lower British North America, rebelled against British rule in , largely due to the taxation that Great Britain was imposing on the colonies. The British colonies in Canada remained loyal to the crown, and a provisional government formed by the Thirteen Colonies proclaimed their independence on July 4, and subsequently became the original 13 United States of America.
A recent development in early modern history is the creation of Atlantic World as a category. It seeks to show both local and regional development and the connections between the various geographical regions. Concerning the development of Eastern philosophies , much of Eastern philosophy had been in an advanced state of development from study in the previous centuries.
go to site The various philosophies include Indian philosophy ,  Chinese philosophy , Iranian philosophy , Japanese philosophy , and Korean philosophy. The re-establishment of three major Muslim empires by the 16th century the aforementioned Ottoman Safavid and Mughal Empires gave rise to a Muslim cultural revival. The early modern period was initiated by the Protestant Reformation and the collapse of the unity of the medieval Western Church.