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Therefore, continuity and security of the supply service are necessary. Since nowadays electrical energy cannot be stored at low-cost and in large quantities, electrical systems must guarantee a constant equilibrium between production and consumption.

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This means that the power generated has to correspond exactly to the one requested at any time interval. The electrical network is ruled in a way to ensure that this balance is respected despite any possible disturbance, from load fluctuations to faults determining the unavailability of some grid elements. The structure of the electrical grid is investigated in the paragraph below. In a traditional network configuration, power generation occurs mainly in big, centralised power plants.

Domestic and commercial users are generally connected to the LV network while the majority of industrial users are connected to the MV network. HV grid is designed to transfer bulk power from major generators to areas of demand; it has a network structure to ensure different alternative paths for the power flow in case some of its elements are unavailable owing to a fault. In Italy, for example, the transmission network has reached a high automation level, leading to a good reliability and security of supply.

On the other hand, MV and LV grids have a radial structure. To be more precise, even if in MV grids different possible paths are available for the power flow, these grids are operated in a radial way. Distribution networks have originally been conceived to transfer power just in one direction: from the substations to the final customer. This model is appropriate as long as only loads, with the exception of a very few generators, are connected to distribution networks so that they can be regarded as passive.

Due to recent large spreading of distributed generation, mainly from renewables, this model needs to be re-visited.

At present, generators are connected to the distribution network according to the fit and forget approach. The capability of the distribution grid to accept a certain amount of diffused generation is called hosting capacity. The nodal hosting capacity NHC methodology is utilised to determine how much DG can be connected to a given network respecting performance limits. Typically, the operating limits are as follows: rapid voltage changes, short circuit currents, reverse power flow and line thermal limits. The DSO deals with the generator as a negative load, since; it puts power on the network instead of withdrawing it.

So, the DSO is forgetting it because it cannot control the generator during its operation: The generator can introduce power into the grid at any moment depending on the will of the producer or on the availability of the energy resources.


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Therefore, it is possible to identify three main issues related to the actual distribution network. First of all, the DSO is obliged to limit DG connection in order to keep the control of the grid, reducing the power that could be installed through DG. A way to overcome this issue would be allowing the generators to collaborate to the management of the grid.

Renewable Energy Sustainable Concepts For The Energy Change Second Edition

The second drawback is related to the behaviour of DG in case of faults or contingencies. If there is an anomaly in the measured values of frequency and voltage at the connection point, DG is disconnected even if the problem is not related to the distribution network but to the transmission one. This results in the sudden unavailability of the power produced by DG which could have dangerous consequences for the safety of the overall electrical power system.

Last but not least, reverse power flow can occur if the installed DG grows. It means that the power does not flow anymore only from the substations to the users but vice-versa. Thus, the updating of protection and regulation systems is necessary. Provided all this, a transition to a new management of the electrical network and of the entire power system is needed; we refer to this new model as smart grid.

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The aim is to move from a system in which power production is centralised and controllable while consumption is completely random, so the responsibility for the balance between generation and consumption is entirely on the production side, to a system in which part of the generation is non-programmable, but this can be counterbalanced by a controllable portion of consumption. The idea is to move from a passive grid to an active one in which there is a bi-directional exchange between producers and users as it shown in Figure 2. An expansion in electric vehicle reception may mean greater adaptability for the framework to react to supply as well as demand.

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For this situation, reserve funds from vehicle-to-grid administrations could take care of the yearly expense of charging an electric auto. This improvement shows that vehicle-to-grid administrations could be utilised as a part of different nations amid peak hours to discharge stored power onto the grid and reduce charging costs. Adjusting the supply as well as demand of power with electric autos additionally could bring about maintaining a strategic distance from exorbitant moves up to the grid, for example, putting resources into new power plants.

In this way, transportation expenses and power bills could reduce with vehicle-to-grid administrations. As more clients embrace EVs, vehicle-to-grid administrations ought to be considered to help level out power supply as well as demand. This alternative might be particularly helpful in urban communities that have embraced electric transports for public transportation.

These electric transports could give power to the grid when not being used, diminishing expenses for the city as well as clients. Some alert ought to be taken as more EVs are associated with the grid. Huge spikes popular for power could cause anxiety that could influence soundness, productivity, and working expenses of the grid. Subsequently, the effect of charging an electric vehicle is subject to where it is situated on the grid and the season of day it is charged.

Utilities plan to utilise disseminated assets, for example, sustainable power source generation, storage and demand reaction, to incompletely control charging effects of EVs. Keen grid innovations, for example, progressed metering foundation could demonstrate accommodating in dealing with the charging of EVs. Such gadgets permit charging stations to be incorporated with time-based rates that support off-peak charging.

They likewise enable utilities to examine charging station utilisation and charging practices to illuminate speculation choices. Moreover, calculations that successfully plan the charging and releasing of EVs are vital for the grid to work proficiently. Be that as it may, growing such calculations is troublesome because of the irregularity and vulnerability of future occasions. More electric vehicle charging stations in advantageous areas are important to adjust request on the grid and increment accommodation.

On the off chance that an electric vehicle needs to charge amid a lengthy, difficult experience trip, it would need to stop at the closest charging station.

Microgrids could likewise support unwavering quality while charging EVs in an area or work zone. Small community areas with disseminated assets, for example, solar-power oriented, wind as well as storage would decrease the strain on our power grid. Maybe circling capacity into nearby microgrids would additionally improve power versatility. As clients receive EVs, it is vital to consider all the potential advantages these autos could give to the grid. The grid could turn out to be more adaptable amid peak times for less cost and costly foundation updates could be kept away from with vehicle-to-grid administrations.

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Providing supplementary services from EVs is a very plausible option in case the process involves large fleet vehicles [ 40 ]. The authors, therefore, suggested an aggregator technology, which may serve the purpose of intermediation between the automobiles, the utility organisations as well as the energy market. Figure 3 vividly demonstrates the aggregator frameworks alongside other forms of the framework [ 41 , 42 ]. In almost every circumstance, the EV aggregator produces essential signals for coordinating the EV fleet based on the data shared between the supply the energy market, TSO as well as the DSO.

There are multiple reasons behind the deployment of EV aggregators.

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Firstly, under current market conditions small loads individual participation is prohibited. Also, it permits easiest interaction with the DSO for troubleshooting. With an appropriate strategy, it can lead to a reduction of the risk of forecast errors of the EV load. As PV penetration increases in LV grid, controlling the EV load can lead to an improvement in the feeder operation and a decrease in the need to invest in infrastructure upgrades of the grid. In grids with such high penetration, there are constraints to keep in mind. Customers will evaluate improvements with respect to dependability, quality, and price.

We expect a major change in the near future in the voltage quality improvement, which will aim to reduce long-term variations in voltage magnitude that arise in a decentralised RES generation context. We know from theory, that EV load coordination can facilitate keeping a local balance between production and consumption, which can reduce under and over-voltages.

Planning rules are currently being revised so as to allow for greater RES penetration by European energy suppliers. Above are the grid reinforcement options. Recently, automatic power curtailment is being looked at within DSOs, if RES induced voltage variations were to exceed the allowable bounds.